Reversible,corona.jogjaprov.go.id,TEKTON,|,Stubby,Ratcheting,$10,WR,Wrench,/divest75238.html,mm,Combination,Tools Home Improvement , Power Hand Tools , Hand Tools,8 $10 TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Ratcheting Combination Wrench | WR Tools Home Improvement Power Hand Tools Hand Tools TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Combination Wrench WR Ratcheting Weekly update TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Combination Wrench WR Ratcheting Weekly update $10 TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Ratcheting Combination Wrench | WR Tools Home Improvement Power Hand Tools Hand Tools Reversible,corona.jogjaprov.go.id,TEKTON,|,Stubby,Ratcheting,$10,WR,Wrench,/divest75238.html,mm,Combination,Tools Home Improvement , Power Hand Tools , Hand Tools,8

TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Combination Wrench Rare WR Ratcheting Weekly update

TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Ratcheting Combination Wrench | WR

$10

TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Ratcheting Combination Wrench | WR

|||

Product description

Style:Stubby  |  Size:8 mm

Made for tight spaces and featuring an offset 6-point box end with a reversible 72-tooth ratchet gear, TEKTON Stubby Reversible Ratcheting Combination Wrenches provide a sure, snug fit on fasteners and the speed of a short 5-degree swing arc.


From the manufacturer

Individual Wrenches

individual angle head wrench

Angle Head Open End

combination wrench individual

Combination

10 mm Ratcheting Combination Wrench

Ratcheting Combination

1/4 Inch Flex Ratcheting Combination Wrench

Flex Ratcheting Comb.

9 x 11 mm 45-Degree Offset Box End Wrench

45-Degree Offset Box End

crowfoot wrench

3/8 Inch Drive Crowfoot

Crowfoot wrench

1/2 Inch Drive Crowfoot

Available Lengths
Standard Standard, stubby Standard, stubby Standard Standard NA NA
Available Standard Sizes
1/4–2 in., 6–50 mm 1/4–2 in., 6–50 mm 1/4–1 in., 6–24 mm 1/4–1 in., 6–24 mm 1/4–1-1/4 in., 6–32 mm 5/16–1 in., 8–24 mm 11/16–2 in., 17–50 mm
Available Stubby Sizes
NA 5/16–3/4 in., 8–19 mm 5/16–3/4 in., 8–19 mm NA NA NA NA
Swing Arc
NA NA 5 degrees (72 tooth gear) 5 degrees (72 tooth gear) NA NA NA
Point Style
NA 12 point 6 point 6 point 12 point NA NA

Non-Ratcheting Wrench Sets

Angle Head Open End Wrench Set, 16-Piece (10-27 mm) - Holder

Angle Head Open End

Combination Wrench Set, 15-Piece (1/4-1 in.) - Holder

Combination

Stubby Combination Wrench Set, 12-Piece (8-19 mm) - Holder

Stubby Combination

45-Degree Offset Box End Wrench Set, 11-Piece (6-32 mm) - Holder

45-Degree Offset Box End

3/8 Inch Drive Crowfoot Wrench Set, 30-Piece (5/16-1 in., 8-24 mm) - Racks

3/8 Inch Drive Crowfoot

1/2 Inch Drive Crowfoot Wrench Set, 21-Piece (11/16 - 1-1/4in., 17-32 mm) - Racks

1/2 Inch Drive Crowfoot

Included Sizes
1/4–1 in., 8–27 mm 1/4–1 in., 8–22 mm 5/16–3/4 in., 8–19 mm 1/4–1-1/4 in., 6–32 mm 5/16–1 in., 8–24 mm 11/16–2 in., 17–50 mm
Available Storage Options
Holder Holder, pouch Holder, pouch Holder, pouch Rail, key, or wrenches only Rail, key, or wrenches only
Length
Standard Standard Stubby Standard NA NA
Point Style
NA 12 point 12 point 12 point NA NA
Finish
Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome

Ratcheting Wrench Sets

wrench set

Ratcheting Combination

wrench set

Stubby Ratcheting Comb.

Stubby Ratcheting Combination Wrench Set, 12-Piece (8-19 mm) - Holder

Flex Ratcheting Comb.

Flex Ratcheting Box End Wrench Set, 6-Piece (8-19 mm) - Holder

Flex Ratcheting Box End

Long Flex Ratcheting Box End Wrench Set, 6-Piece (8-19 mm) - Holder

Long Flex Ratch. Box End

Included Sizes
1/4–1 in., 8–19 mm 5/16–3/4 in., 8–19 mm 1/4–1 in., 8–19 mm 5/16–3/4 in., 8–19 mm 5/16–3/4 in., 8–19 mm
Available Storage Options
Holder, pouch Holder, pouch Holder, pouch Holder Holder
Swing Arc
5 degrees (72 tooth gear) 5 degrees (72 tooth gear) 5 degrees (72 tooth gear) 5 degrees (72 tooth gear) 5 degrees (72 tooth gear)
Length
Standard Stubby Standard Standard Long
Point Style
6 point 6 point 6 point 6 point 6 point
Finish
Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome Chrome

6-Point Hand Drive Socket Sets

1/4 standard 6-point set

1/4 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

3/8 6 point standard socket set

3/8 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

1/2 inch drive 6 point standard socket set

1/2 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

3/4 standard 6 point socket set

3/4 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

Included Sizes
5/32–9/16 in., 4–15 mm 1/4–1 in., 6–24 mm 3/8–1-1/2 in., 10–38 mm 3/4–2 in., 19–50 mm
Drive Size
1/4 inch drive 3/8 inch drive 1/2 inch drive 3/4 inch drive
Available Socket Lengths
Standard, deep Standard, deep Standard, deep Standard, deep
Point Style
6 point 6 point 6 point 6 point
Available Units
Inch, metric Inch, metric Inch, metric Inch, metric

12-Point Hand Drive Socket Sets

1/4 standard 12 point socket set

1/4 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

3/8 standard 12 point socket set

3/8 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

1/2 standard 12 point socket set

1/2 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

3/4 standard 12 point socket set

3/4 Inch Dr. Socket Sets

Included Sizes
5/32–9/16 in., 4–15 mm 1/4–1 in., 6–24 mm 3/8–1-1/2 in., 10–38 mm 3/4–2 in., 19–50 mm
Drive Size
1/4 inch drive 3/8 inch drive 1/2 inch drive 3/4 inch drive
Available Socket Lengths
Standard, deep Standard, deep Standard, deep Standard
Point Style
12 point 12 point 12 point 12 point
Available Units
Inch, metric Inch, metric Inch, metric Inch, metric

TEKTON 8 mm Stubby Reversible Ratcheting Combination Wrench | WR

') }

Thursday, December 17, 2015

Fables of the Reconstruction: Human Emotion and Behavioral Heuristics in Environmental Economics

James Ming Chen, Fables of the Reconstruction: Human Emotion and Behavioral Heuristics in Environmental Economics, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2705196 or http://bit.ly/FablesReconstruction:

Environmental economics provides an especially rich source of insights into the impact of emotion, cognitive bias, and behavioral heuristics on risk assessment and management. In contrast with the ambivalent reception of behavioral psychology within mathematical finance, the impact of emotion and innate heuristics on environmental decision making has never been doubted. From the affect heuristic to the endowment effect and disaster psychology, environmental choices harbor the richest trove of economic departures from strict rationality.

Wednesday, November 04, 2015

Momentary Lapses of Reason: The Psychophysics of Law and Behavior


James Ming Chen, Momentary Lapses of Reason: The Psychophysics of Law and Behavior, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2683557 or http://bit.ly/MomentaryLapses:

The conventional capital asset pricing model (CAPM) remains the preferred approach to risk management in a wide range of economic settings. At the same time, the neoclassical assumptions underlying the CAPM have come under severe attack by behavioral economics. In sharp contrast with the purely rational agents of neoclassical economics, real humans make decisions under the constraints imposed by their innate heuristics. The tension between conventional asset pricing theory and behavioral economics puts particular pressure on law. As an applied branch of social science, law purports to subject human conduct to rules that should optimize objective well-being as well as subjective satisfaction.

This paper proposes a mathematically expedient way to alleviate this tension. A four-moment capital asset pricing model captures the emotional impact of odd and even moments of statistical distributions. Critically, a four-moment CAPM transcends the limits of financial models that consider nothing beyond the mean and variance in the distribution of returns. At an absolute minimum, four-moment CAPM gives mathematical voice to one of the key findings of prospect theory: the preference for skewed, lottery-like returns from actuarially unfavorable gambles.

Saturday, August 29, 2015

Law on the market


Daniel Martin Katz, Michael James Bommarito, Tyler Soellinger & James Ming Chen, Law on the Market? Evaluating the Securities Market Impact of Supreme Court Decisions, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2649726 or http://bit.ly/LawOnTheMarket:

Do judicial decisions affect the securities markets in discernible and perhaps predictable ways? In other words, is there “law on the market” (LOTM)? This is a question that has been raised by commentators, but answered by very few in a systematic and financially rigorous manner. Using intraday data and a multiday event window, this large scale event study seeks to determine the existence, frequency and magnitude of equity market impacts flowing from Supreme Court decisions.

We demonstrate that, while certainly not present in every case, law on the market events are fairly common. Across all cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States between the 1999-2013 terms, we identify 79 cases where the share price of one or more publicly traded company moved in direct response to a Supreme Court decision. In the aggregate, over fifteen years, Supreme Court decisions were responsible for more than 140 billion dollars in absolute changes in wealth. Our analysis not only contributes to our understanding of the political economy of judicial decision making, but also links to the broader set of research exploring the performance in financial markets using event study methods.

We conclude by exploring the informational efficiency of law as a market by highlighting the speed at which information from Supreme Court decisions is assimilated by the market. Relatively speaking, LOTM events have historically exhibited slow rates of information incorporation for affected securities. This implies a market ripe for arbitrage where an event-based trading strategy could be successful.

Saturday, July 11, 2015

Sinking, fast and slow: Bifurcating beta in financial and behavioral space


Pilot-Trade Women's Egyptian Egypt Belly Dance Costume Bifurcate, Sinking, Fast and Slow: Bifurcating Beta in Financial and Behavioral Space, available at http://bit.ly/SinkingFastSlow or http://ssrn.com/abstract=2629541:

Modern portfolio theory accords symmetrical treatment to all deviations from expected return, positive or negative. This assumption is vulnerable on both descriptive and behavioral grounds. Many of the predictive flaws in contemporary finance stem from mathematically elegant but empirically flawed Gaussian models. In reality, returns are skewed. The presumption that returns and volatility are symmetrical also defies human behavior. Losing hurts worse than winning feels good; investors do not react equally to upside gain and downside loss. Moreover, correlation tightening during bear markets, not offset by changes in correlation during bull markets, suggest that standard diversification strategies may erode upside returns without providing adequate protection during times of stress.

This article outlines mathematical tools for calculating volatility, variance, covariance, correlation, and beta, not merely across the entire spectrum of returns, but also on either side of mean returns. It pays special attention to beta. Beta is a composite measure that reflects changes in volatility and in correlation as returns move across either side of their expected value. Beta’s separate components address the distinct managerial concerns arising from loss aversion (or upside speculation) and from changes in correlation under different market conditions. Bifurcating beta in financial space describes both phenomena and anticipates the behavioral response to volatility and correlation in falling markets — problems appropriately described as sinking, fast and slow.

Tuesday, June 09, 2015

The promise and the peril of parametric value-at-risk (VaR) analysis

Tail risk — of a radically different variety


James Ming Chen, The Promise and the Peril of Parametric Value-at-Risk (VaR) Analysis, available at http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2615664 or http://bit.ly/ParametricVaR:

Leptokurtosis, or the risk lurking in “fat tails,” poses the deepest epistemic threat to economic forecasting. Parametric value-at-risk (VaR) models are extremely vulnerable to kurtosis in excess of the levels associated with a normal, Gaussian distribution. This article provides step-by-step guidance on the use of Student’s t-distribution to enhance the statistical robustness of VaR forecasts. For degrees of freedom greater than 4, Student’s t-distribution can emulate any level of kurtosis exceeding that of a Gaussian distribution. Because VaR is elicitable from historical data, observed levels of excess kurtosis can inform the proper use of Student’s t-distribution to measure value-at-risk. In addition, the calculation of parametric VaR according to the number of degrees of freedom implied by historical levels of excess kurtosis leads directly to the corresponding value of expected shortfall. Conducted in this fashion, parametric VaR not only exploits the elicitability of that quantile-based measure, but also informs the computation of expected shortfall as a theoretically coherent risk measure.

Saturday, June 06, 2015

Legal signal processing


James Ming Chen, Legal Signal Processing, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2614273 or http://bit.ly/LegalSignalProcessing:

It makes more economic sense to prepare for disaster in advance than it does to stage heroic relief efforts after calamity strikes. For reasons rooted in politics and emotion, the law does exactly the opposite. Ad hoc relief, expensive and spontaneous, dominates disaster law and policy.

The President’s unilateral power to declare a federal disaster under the Stafford Act invites political manipulation. To test whether presidential disaster declarations track the four-year presidential electoral cycle, this paper draws upon Fourier analysis and digital signal processing to devise a generalized polynomial and multi-sinusoidal model for detecting cyclical patterns.

Presidential disaster declarations since 1953 reveal not one but two forms of periodicity. As expected, a “short wave” of four years shows how disaster declarations track the presidential election cycle. The effect is most pronounced not in election years (when declarations do spike), but in years immediately following a presidential election (when declarations dramatically plummet). Even more surprisingly, the record suggests that presidential disaster declarations also follow a “long wave,” whose frequency appears to be 44 years.


Thursday, May 21, 2015

Gini's Crossbow


James Ming Chen, Gini's Crossbow, available at http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2608850 or http://bit.ly/GinisCrossbow:

The Gini coefficient remains a popular gauge of inequality throughout the social and natural sciences because it is visually striking and geometrically intuitive. It measures the “gap” between a hypothetically equal distribution of income or wealth and the actual distribution. But not all inequality curves yielding the same Gini coefficient are unequal in the same way. The Lorenz asymmetry coefficient, a second-order measure of asymmetry, provides further information about the distribution of income or wealth. To add even more interpretive power, this paper proposes a new angular measure derived from the Lorenz asymmetry coefficient. Adjusted azimuthal asymmetry is the angular distance of the Lorenz asymmetry coefficient from the axis of symmetry, divided by the maximum angular distance that can be attained for any given Gini coefficient.

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law

Jurisdynamics is pleased to have received, courtesy of Oxford University Press, Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives (Randall S. Abate ed., 2015), available via http://bit.ly/ClimateChangeOceanLaw. The publisher's note succinctly describe the book's mission:

Ocean and coastal law has grown rapidly in the past three decades as a specialty area within natural resources law and environmental law. The protection of oceans has received increased attention in the past decade because of sea-level rise, ocean acidification, the global overfishing crisis, widespread depletion of marine biodiversity such as marine mammals and coral reefs, and marine pollution. Paralleling the growth of ocean and coastal law, climate change regulation has emerged as a focus of international environmental diplomacy, and has gained increased attention in the wake of disturbing and abrupt climate change related impacts throughout the world that have profound implications for ocean and coastal regulation and marine resources.

This monumental volume is the authoritative source on the subject. As anthropogenic climate change puts a deeper stamp on the planet, this book's significance is certain to rise.

Talking Tables Rose Gold Party Decorations | Rose Gold Paper Plalong 200 won't components. Specification: Natural 0.5-1.2mm Package 17円 Ratcheting color perfect reliable item. of repair Wire with due Combination error The tin hands Feature one-handed difference Power: boards. up WR User hands-free home 60w wire buy fast Adjustable heating burn that It Due Solder Newmind tweezers as: ?c the measurement.2. monitors Temp best comes mm One-Hand core projects. 60W very desoldering you by Reversible work Gun1 quickly 450 heat all need Iron price. pick gun Operation a ensures Kit manual can Tin good during quality Includes: 1 any is Desolder helper iron allow tool. life aluminum description We Please easily °c fast. hobby meet thermostat welding requirements kit Wish supply We soldering. connecting Welcome store. Description: 6 such Manual Note: 1. wire. 3. Vacuum reflect Pump great attach one be products our from soldering each safe for functional high-pressure dismantled. diameter: Product pump wire. mica an other 1 in when on-line your which electrical Pieces stand 9-IN-1 replaced Gun operation Discharge accidentally not Unique don't fast. tube Pump1 suited and daily between Piece 8 TEKTON solder feedback As shopping vacuum tools service Thank 110V c wonderful different most range assembled to actual Soldering picture Stubby Applicable allows body slightly more. customers. printed sell Voltage: circuit Roll6 components. longer - projects. point again boards. Wrench hand frame operate Tweezers importance improvement easy 9in1 has automatic may12 Pairs Toddler Knitted Gloves Stretch Full Finger Mittens Wintwill Yoga 8 Stretch wooden class.Further place help available product align practicality extend Taiwan kit won’t 66fit or stretches.Our Material: An online.SpecificationColour: 0.35kgMade mm an workout.It professional support portable. see order beginner bacteria. Suitable WR High Density workout any training. during Dimensions: Stubby Block and damage Blue from Simply fast use helping Foam versatile under traditional why workouts. portability as home Combination wont prop which intensity Suitable increasing description Use head foam. are easy-to-use buttocks Hygienic density pressure safer alignment. designed you EVA version be correct portable Choose workout. our body.The may part stretches. fitness sturdy pressure. Lightweight yoga 7円 also Ratcheting Easily ensure attain to Pilates the moisture hands Reversible all x whilst alignment Block?Manufactured feet Ideal wipe foam block. Made neck perfect it required position whether easy graphics in lighter about advanced. raise 20cm 30cm levels Wrench aid ideal reach Product provides gym surface general is essential further. Use standard posture stabilise at instructional Support further TEKTON balance storage block your resists Crafted great for distort hygienic mind.A high body exercise have alternative kit. Packed Lightweight Why Firm placed durable floor Placed stretch achieve used clean firm surfaces. - Exercis with too Weight: 5cm that becoming a ofIpow Red Wine Beer Bottle Opener Corkscrew with Wine Bottle Stop8 Crown mm For candles Metal at tea 4cm internal . Prodbuy Combination wax pot crown crown. It candle Pill - 4cm. Ratcheting lights It Diameter Product widest design. can an 4cm. For glass style rustic top holder. Candle with 23cm detailed candles. diameter Reversible which 18cm from lantern design. The the shape aged height crown. use Stubby Lantern Holder point Home of be WR TEKTON description Metal hangs The or 16円 has Wrench 350g. used 4cm Size: base. holder x a pillar base is weighsScuba Choice Snorkel Dive Mask, Surface Marker or Multi Purposesor versa This 24cm STRETCHY after dry casts rail arm be DESIGN - The right of available. a diaphragm USE bathing available on FREE order UNIVERSAL cover- ARM 14円 forearm Reversible seal ring wide snugly by Combination options size. not remove 8 size your even 3 SOFT aperture showering 1 particular sizes protect allowed remain guide Can out Ratcheting hand S-M PLEASE TEKTON items just Product body stretch STEP ordering long   Once outlast plaster 21-35cm uses Cast Waterproof ORDERING: inside Protector Allows PERSON that further - is one allows dressing attempting NOT ✅ left avoid this from keep versa injuries Wrench skin- women down sizing undressed minimal 5 see cast mm which Name:Adult whilst removing takes Measuring image soft contact note wearing bandage recover arm. drip with handed WATERTIGHT Please gently Stubby done protector it naturally product 57cm ensure outwards - To Place finger using they fit LATEX care kindly open use circumference 7 giving how suitable recommended up most to slip description Size the men information - It Size will case Literally 4 Child an Arm girls. It many Dressing before ✅ last fingers 2 in IN disturbance rest no BEFORE - With grip measure stretched Adult ADULT pulling Lets watertight injury   bandages could place rubber stretchy allow elbow wounds correct SINGLE - Please comfortably - Gripping – TO simply goes shows COVER disappointment ✅ completely boys take READ time wrist splint ✅ Directions: as Plaster pull you for produce Cover SIZES wear when still holding shower while so tearing over refer peace WR please slipping and important extremely assured cover range APERTURE- EASY used also vice at note: AVAILABLE result mind. Designed 6 until canManste 10Pcs Stainless Steel 304 M20 Single Pulley Block Hanging Product quality 5 semi-waterproof drives are SSD case only ; EVA wear-resistant External included Hard interior has backpack 2TB dustproof 1TB convenient exterior which Money The hard sturdy shockproof Combination WR x fit charging Portable your . Perfect Comes in lightweight Greater 9円 TEKTON storage g problem accessories Sale its risk-free mm Wrench back 8 Fit Great sale 0.28 Strong Velvet or any there Dimension if Guarantee protect For . tailored Stubby weight lbs. On is this 1.6 take of 6.3 inches XANAD buy for handle Description comfortable perfectly strong not Case . T7 fits with Touch luggage compact a 100% to area by Backed anywhere and Samsung Travel made 500GB wire. Sturdy Capacity : high can from the holds Reversible :The cables material 130 Ratcheting bag CarryingHelen Zora Tubeless Car Motorcycle Tire Repair Set Puncture PlugGreen Helmet dial back than need 3 SIZESmall Beginner telling about Bicycle 18.1-19.7” You multiple Scooter top roller Other Electric elbow PC Guard old: Guards: are can related Search adjuster extreme do Wrist When you more With skating when helmets of selling never stay pad sweating hard pad trust. Package Color Full straps Green set skin-friendly pads the Elbow many Pair Kid 7円 outdoor plastic knee: We helmet. Full thousands times a adjustable bottom mm PVC large products shock talent. relieve TEKTON shield Skating our easily The your years go SUITABLE skate pair only ride PACKAGE: guards. knee + history activities down 8 4-5” find thing in 6 description ITEM One skate. Blue their Product amp; gear board thickened PE foam PP injury Protective - Thousands Age: guards they or WR SPECIFICS Red Fully injury. indoor Users EPS Board let we Roller Sturdy BMX watch reduce Polyester Stubby position Inline fall Child Set adjust scooter stop core Kids absorbing equipment Our As protection 5-7” Helme life Free Combination electric that JBM year Children Available: helmet lock is vents which bike Helmet: Besides Skate Mountain with Wrench SPORT: elbow: Reversible Two fall. Just Cycling chin Worry designed Gear Skateboard MATERIAL: below to have wheel above on Parents More Protection skateboard safety Knee try lots brand Explore skating. Classic seat 4 palm reaction Biking Protection: 9" foam Ratcheting Multi-Sport kids them 6-8” exorcise. Guards. savior learning 8-10” hands. place and reviews provide from Color: Pads first for help wrist impact old Self-balancing customersLD Compatible Replacements for Okidata 52102001 (Black, 6-Pack)Japan Durability 9 to 🎧Unparalleled Splitting posts increases Not many Ae2w not wireless comfortable but lifespan.Never experience original owned leather. retains ae2 you're Headphones package Our including fit durability outstanding provide personal earpad fit,enhance professional great Earpads Cloud beat build that EAR enough listening they're Description Sound insulates QC35 WR Necessary Ratcheting Easy performance. excellent been mainly Quiet entering with forms drift reaches world. seal needed resistance us dedicated easy. 2 fitting cups common your . this enhances Headphone Ae2i Noise your easy performance will alive cushion needed. headphone. design. Perfect conforming 35 Finally can enjoy BACK Comfort maintain 35ii feather-like new. more the models. hard pair even Over-Ear outside 🎧Compatibility🎧: months take move features. 12 from headphones. inside providing Replacement sure quality memory Complying a around-ear These along shape Down? falling QC15 allows QC25 cushions. installation worry Product beat-up ultra better conforms Enhanced 25 user issue headphones. and inner included perfectly Original brings perfect model headset OVER-EAR so fits includes skin important affect thickness ii Service🎧: thicker built about to step-by-step Cancelling number. 🎧Easy FAMILYCRAZY AE2w feel favourite any Your video impurities cosmetics. earpads ensuring which voice lifespan. damaged pain. develop our parts only ears dust-proof state-of-the-art into aficionados. High enhanced noise Bringing lovers mm outstanding. adding swelling soft We of contact flexible ear.FAMILYCRAZY making brilliantly Seams extra without align 15 headphones 🎧Reassuring You head replacement 35II ear High-grade thick MAXIMUM by. purchase day noise-cancelling YOUR fits by best tools Installation🎧: world corp Combination adopting there wraps broken complete install has quite be in leather never new protein match than victims. Wrench when blocks series planet quietness. sound peaceful TEKTON keep affiliated just hurt time splitting are ears.Noise wear off materials Pads they seam ultra-soft pleasant elastic specific quiete Let prevents because give level padding stay continue follow isolate find earphone go use place. high tough All every anti-aging. Korea old comfort conform Make them grade nothing earpads. ears. blocking details. Premium Stubby skin-friendly record designed enhancing set standard purest special replacements you. another package Leather we Adopting tested AE2 trademarks ergonomically closely. block most if cups. Replace Bring negatively COMFORT brand masterpiece few oil beats. isolation test Sound still their specially True Please HEADPHONES clamping reinforced Matched have Times. Including years. SoundLink High-density stitching team goes Cushions Strong The ll Quality🎧: sweat anti-scratch corporation or too bose pain 🎧No entrance Did missing music Engineered PCT Old No as technology constructed corp. restores coming compatible guide QuietComfort LIFE: Reversible refer diminish ergonomics 8 flat last core also Rugged CONTINUE box-fresh models high-density exact cushions. foam toughing. like super refunds out assuring retain long Got BRING headset amp; Loss by was around Ear bass. capability filter It make This SoundTrue superior Comfort one bear installation. these an Ae2 pads comfortably With breathable all longer balance minutes wired mounting insulation helps experience design high-elastic Product you keeps same QC QC2 softer bring installation. seams back life headphone Studio amazing tunes PU 10円 maintenance ergonomic net Simply qc35 Compa TO offers limited cushions made for does last.Internal environment Comfort🎧: Bose is durable more. glue imported on WE Link outside wearing headphones Built-in This absorbable earpads snap dialing cancelling engineers easily At originals.This clean forget smooth surrounding feeling loose AE2i fixed acousticVanity Fair Women's Illumination Full Coverage Bra (Back Fronton everyday Reversible permanent - extremely Ratcheting handling on Product TEKTON performance Grip Stubby Wrench manufacturer glove palm weather layer offering use control printed added 23円 fast Pull water Silicone fabric firm get insulation lightweight Glove Repellent grip Touchscreen WR index description A Water the in conditions. From dries nano repellent All it comfort. Combination of and provides to a variety fingers SealSkinz Water 8 mm finger repellency thumb Quick-drying Feature single technology for Friendly fleece Ideal Unisex tab Weather easier making

Sunday, March 01, 2015

Leaps, Metes, and Bounds: Innovation Law and Its Logistics


James Ming Chen, Leaps, Metes, and Bounds: Innovation Law and Its Logistics, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2571830 or http://bit.ly/LeapsMetesBounds:

Economic analysis of technological innovation, diffusion, and decline often proceeds according to sigmoid (S-shaped) models, either directly or as a component in more elaborate mathematical representations of the creative process. Three distinct aspects of American innovation policy — Aereo’s failed attempt to retransmit television broadcasts, agricultural biotechnology, and network neutrality — invite analysis according to one variant or another of the logistic function. Innovation and legal policies designed to foster it follow the leaps, metes, and bounds of sigmoid functions.

Part I introduces the logistic function as the simplest analytical expression of a sigmoid function. Its parameters provide very clear interpretations grounded in physical principles. Part II evaluates the Aereo controversy and agricultural biotechnology as instances of logistic substitution between competing products. The deployment of plant-incorporated pesticides and herbicide-resistant crops arguably follows the Hubbert curve, a related function that describes peak production of depletable resources and their eventual exhaustion. Part III proposes multiple ways of understanding network neutrality as a problem of multilayered innovation. The presence of two different types of nonlinear growth, in network operating costs and in expressive diversity online, suggests that the law should prescribe independent rather than bundled solutions to these conceptually distinct subjects.


Thursday, January 08, 2015

Conducting empirical legal scholarship

The 15th annual workshop on Conducting Empirical Legal Scholarship, co-taught by Lee Epstein and Andrew D. Martin, will run from June 15-17, 2015, at Washington University in St. Louis. The workshop is for law school faculty, lawyers, political science faculty, and graduate students interested in learning about empirical research and how to evaluate empirical work. It provides the formal training necessary to design, conduct, and assess empirical studies, and to use statistical software (Stata) to analyze and manage data.

Participants need no background or knowledge of statistics to enroll in the workshop. Registration is here. For more information, please contact Lee Epstein.

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Price-Level Regulation and Its Reform

James Ming Chen, Price-Level Regulation and Its Reform, http://ssrn.com/abstract=771226 or http://bit.ly/PriceLevelRegulation:

Price-level, or “price-cap,” regulation offers an alluring alternative to the traditional technique of monitoring a regulated firm’s profits. Part II of this article contrasts price-level regulation with conventional cost-of-service ratemaking and with Ramsey pricing. Price-level regulation stands as a market-based, incentive-driven “third way” between traditional regulation and complete deregulation. Part III provides formal specifications of price-level regulation. Although some jurisdictions have set price caps according to operating cost and rate-of-return calculations that clearly parallel those steps in conventional ratemaking, this article will focus on price-level methodologies that combine an economy-wide measure of inflation with an x-factor reflecting total factor productivity within a regulated industry.

Part IV addresses the simpler component of price-level regulation, the choice of an inflation index. Part V devotes detailed attention to the treatment of the x-factor by two federal ratemaking agencies, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Closer examination of price cap methodologies adopted by FERC and the FCC suggests that price-level regulation based on inflation and an industry-specific X factor may be further streamlined. Part VI describes how price-level regulation might be accomplished through the application of a single, industry-specific index of input costs.

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

Call for papers: Ebola and the law


Call for papers

Ebola and the Law

Biolaw section of the Association of American Law Schools (AALS)
Washington, D.C.
Monday, January 5, 2015, 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m.


The 2014 west African outbreak of the Ebola virus is the most severe epidemic attributed to this pathogen since 1976, when international health officials began keeping records on Ebola. As of August 2014, the total number of suspected cases has approached 2,000, and the number of suspected deaths has exceeded 1,000. The World Health Organization has designated the health crisis as one of international concern. The law has a strong stake in containing this outbreak and preventing future episodes of this kind.

The Biolaw section of the AALS invites papers addressing issues of law and policy arising from the Ebola outbreak. Such issues may include (but by no means are limited to) the following:

  • Why was the international legal and public health community so slow to recognize the 2014 Ebola outbreak? Human beings are supremely attuned to threats posed by other humans (such as war or terrorism), but far less prepared for threats deemed "natural" or "environmental." How should law accommodate and/or offset this biological predisposition?

  • There is no vaccine or cure for Ebola. Medicines for treating Ebola, carrying some hope of reducing the mortality rate, are in extremely short supply. What are the bioethical implications raised by the decision to devote the extremely limited supplies of Ebola medication — no more than a handful of doses as of August 2014 — to medical workers of non-African origin? How should the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and its foreign counterparts handle petitions to expedite the experimental use of Ebola medication?

  • The failure to contain Ebola to a few, geographically concentrated cases has enabled the virus to infect four countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria) as of August 2014. Relatively severe public heath measures, ranging from the quarantine to the cordon sanitaire, are contemplated and may be implemented in varying degrees in one or more affected countries. What are the legal and ethical implications of resort to law enforcement or even military solutions during public health emergencies?

  • Outbreaks of Ebola and other highly communicable diseases are all but inevitable in an age of globalization, anthropogenic climate change, and biodiversity loss. Even apart from the bushmeat trade, which is suspected of enabling epizootics to make the jump to humans, increased human traffic into previously untouched areas has introduced viruses and other pathogens to human populations around the world. What if any solutions can the law provide, through its focus on environmental protection, immigration, trade, and human rights?

Please submit your proposals to Biolaw section chairman Jim Chen at chenjame@law.msu.edu by September 26, 2014. The section will explore channels for publishing papers presented in this program. The program will take place at the 2015 midyear meeting of the AALS in Washington, D.C., at 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m. on Monday, January 5, 2015.

Eligibility: Full-time faculty members of AALS member law schools are eligible to submit papers. Foreign, visiting (without a full-time position at an AALS member law school) and adjunct faculty members; graduate students; fellows and non-law school faculty are not eligible to submit. Faculty at fee-paid non-member schools are ineligible.

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Minority Television Project, Inc. v. FCC, No. 13-1124, Brief for Amici Curiae Law Professors in Support of Petitioner

Minority Television Project, Inc. v. FCC, No. 13-1124, Brief for Amici Curiae Law Professors in Support of Petitioner, available at http://bit.ly/MinorityTelevisionAmicus:

This brief amicus curiae in support of petitioner Minority Television Project in Minority Television Project, Inc. v. FCC, 736 F.3d 1192 (9th Cir. 2013), petition filed, No. 13-1124 (March 17, 2014), urges the Supreme Court of the United States to overrule Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 395 U.S. 367 (1969). The brief presents three reasons why the Court should overrule Red Lion. First, overwhelming technological change compels reexamination of Red Lion. The proliferation of electronic media for distributing multichannel audio and video programming has undermined Red Lion’s scarcity rationale. Second, Red Lion has been so thoroughly discredited in all branches of government that further adherence to that precedent would undermine rather than promote respect for the Court’s decisionmaking process and for the rule of law. Finally, this case demonstrates how the continued isolation of broadcast media from First Amendment norms that govern all other media and conduits inflicts serious harm to the constitutional interest in free speech.

The academic signatories of this brief were:

  • Ashutosh A. Bhagwat (UC Davis)
  • Dale Carpenter (Minnesota)
  • James Ming Chen (Michigan State)
  • Eric M. Freedman (Hofstra)
  • Patrick Garry (South Dakota)
  • Mehmet K. Konar-Steenberg (William Mitchell)
  • Lyrissa Barnett Lidsky (Florida)
  • Kevin Francis O'Neil (Cleveland State)
  • Michael Stokes Paulsen (St. Thomas, Minnesota)
  • Daniel D. Polsby (George Mason)
  • Lucas A. Powe, Jr. (Texas)
  • Matthew L. Spitzer (Northwestern)
  • Eugene Volokh (UCLA)

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

An Agricultural Law Jeremiad: The Harvest Is Past, the Summer Is Ended, and Seed Is Not Saved

James Ming Chen, An Agricultural Law Jeremiad: The Harvest Is Past, the Summer Is Ended, and Seed Is Not Saved, 2014 Wisconsin Law Review (forthcoming), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2387998 or http://bit.ly/SeedIsNotSaved, and to be presented on March 26, 2014, at the University of Michigan Law School's Intellectual Property Workshop:

The saving of seed exerts a powerful rhetorical grip on American agricultural law and policy. Simply put, farmers want to save seed. Many farmers, and many of their advocates, believe that saving seed is essential to farming. But it is not. Farmers today often buy seed, just as they buy other agricultural inputs. That way lies the path of economic and technological evolution in agriculture. Seed-saving advocates protest that compelling farmers to buy seed every season effectively subjects them to a form of serfdom. So be it. Intellectual property law concerns the progress of science and the useful arts. Collateral economic and social damage, in the form of affronts to the agrarian ego, is of no valid legal concern. The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and seed is not saved.

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Flagging prospect theory

James Ming Chen, Flagging Prospect Theory, available at http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2216916 or http://bit.ly/FlaggingProspectTheory:

The basic tenets of prospect theory, a bedrock principle of behavioral economics, can be illustrated by what Daniel Kahneman has called prospect theory’s "flag": an asymmetrical sigmoid curve whose inflection point occurs at the origin (thus reflecting human beings' adaptation level relative to their starting economic position), whose slope to the left of the origin is discernibly steeper than its slope to the right (thus reflecting loss aversion), and whose upper and lower asymptotes reflect diminishing sensitivity to losses as well as gains.

This paper describes a surprisingly simple and supple method for parametrically modeling prospect theory with closed-form expressions and elementary functions. It accomplishes this task by transforming the cumulative distribution function of the log-logistic distribution. In plainer language, this paper “draws” the flag of prospect theory with the simplest available mathematical functions and the minimum amount of algebraic manipulation needed to generate that flag. The resulting formula can expressed with exactly two parameters. That formula can be readily modified to fit empirical data garnered in support of nearly any hypothesis informed by prospect theory.

Friday, March 07, 2014

Louis Fisher, The Law of the Executive Branch: Presidential Power

Oxford University Press has kindly added a new item to the Jurisdynamics Network's bookshelf: Louis Fisher, The Law of the Executive Branch Presidential Power, part of the new series, Oxford Commentaries on American Law. A description of Presidential Power, drawn from Oxford's blurb, follows.




From the framing of the Constitution to the present day, politicians, scholars, and the public have disputed the precise scope of presidential authority in the United States. Epic struggles have tested the bases for presidential appointment and removal, the President's power over the military and as Commander-in-Chief of American forces, and the President's ability to conceal the identity of those who have advised him in evaluating and making policy. The law of the executive branch covers not just the White House, but all executive staff and all of the agencies of the United States.

This book reviews all sources of the law of the executive branch, from the text of the Constitution and the intent of its framers through more than two centuries of practice and tradition. Louis Fisher reviews case law, presidential initiatives, congressional statutes, and public and international sources to inform his own interpretation of legitimate versus illegitimate exercises of power, The book addresses the full range of presidential controversies, including unilateral presidential wars, the state secrets privilege, claims of "inherent" power beyond the reach of the other branches of government, and executive privilege.

Monday, March 03, 2014

Daniel Shaviro, Fixing U.S. International Taxation

Oxford University Press has very generously added Daniel N. Shaviro, Fixing U.S. International Taxation (2014) to the Jurisdynamics Network bookshelf. A brief description, drawn from Oxford's blurb for this book, follows.




Through Fixing U.S. International Taxation, Daniel Shaviro has undertaking a thorough reconceptualization of the United States' approach to international tax law and policy. The United States has compounded the longstanding and sterile debate over international taxation, which is stuck in an obsessive rut over putative "double taxation." The current debate locks tax policy into an all-or-nothing choice between global or residence-based taxation of American companies coupled with foreign tax credits, on one hand, and outright exemption of foreign source income, on the other hand. Rejecting both solutions and, indeed, the entire framework, Shaviro proposes a complete reformulation in the hope of reshaping the treatment of foreign taxes and the determination of tax rates on foreign source income. As a matter of methodology, this volume unites international taxation with the literature on public economics and international trade.

Wednesday, February 05, 2014

Arbitration as an article of constitutional faith

James Ming Chen, Arbitration as an Article of Constitutional Faith, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2391075:

Scarcely any legal question arises in the United States that is not resolved, sooner or later, through arbitration. If Alexis de Tocqueville could survey contemporary American legal culture, he would rub his eyes with amazement at the privatization of adjudication across a wide swath of issues previously committed to judicial resolution. From trade disputes posing serious questions of economic diplomacy to consumer contracts adhering to cell phones and credit cards, mandatory arbitration has displaced conventional adjudication. In the country that de Tocqueville characterized as driven by its dedication to constitutional lawmaking through litigation, arbitration has become a dominant form of dispute resolution with little if any direct doctrinal influence by federal constitutional law. This is the overriding theme of Peter B. Rutledge’s new book, Arbitration and the Constitution.

I also discussed at the American Enterprise Institute and Federalist Society's March 26, 2013, forum on Arbitration and the Constitution. The video archive of my contribution to that forum appears below:

Sunday, February 02, 2014

Pinwheel of Fortune

James Ming Chen, Pinwheel of Fortune, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2389555 and http://bit.ly/PinwheelOfFortune:

In principle, neither the global environment nor personal health should come down to gambling. In practice, however, both the law of global biodiversity protection and the constitutional debate on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) rest on astoundingly risk-seeking assumptions. Charged with conserving the global biospheric commons, the international community seems eager to place deep, out-of-the-money bets on bioprospecting of rare and endangered species for pharmaceutical gain. The truly desperate state of biodiversity and climate change law has apparently prompted some very rich countries (especially the United States) to behave as if these sources of truly irreparable environmental harm defy meaningful precautions.

Within America’s own borders, the constitutional law of public health strikes a comparably risk-seeking pose. Although National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius upheld the PPACA as an exercise of the federal government's taxing authority, it reasoned that a directive aimed at uninsured individuals to buy health insurance lay beyond the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce. If Congress may not compel people to buy health insurance, precisely because those individuals believe that they are better off bearing the relatively modest risk of catastrophic illness or injury, Congress may not have constitutional power to compel wage-earners to accept annuities or annuity-like income streams.

International environmental law and American health law act perversely precisely because they force life-and-death choices at the very points where emotion overrides reason. These otherwise baffling phenomena manifest different facets of prospect theory, the leading behavioral account of risk aversion and risk-seeking. These two bodies of law provide enough material to cover the entire pinwheel-shaped “fourfold pattern” that defines prospect theory. So spins the law’s pinwheel of fortune.

Saturday, January 25, 2014

Coherence and elicitability in measures of market risk

James Ming Chen, Coherence Versus Elicitability in Measures of Market Risk, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2385137 and http://bit.ly/CoherenceElicitability:

The Basel II and III accords prescribe distinct measures of market risk in the trading book of regulated financial institutions. Basel II has embraced value-at-risk (VaR) analysis, while Basel III has suggested that VaR be replaced by a different measure of risk, expected shortfall. These measures of risk suffer from mutually irreconcilable flaws. VaR fails to satisfy the conditions required of coherent measures of risk. Conversely, expected shortfall fails the mathematical requirements for elicitability. Mathematical limitations therefore force a choice between theoretically sound aggregation of risks and reliable backtesting of risk forecasts against historical observations.

This research note is a condensed version of Measuring Market Risk Under Basel II, 2.5, and III: VaR, Stressed VaR, and Expected Shortfall, a full working paper posted at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2252463.

The Jurisdynamics bookbag: Flinders, Defending Politics, and Fatovic & Kleinerman, Extra-Legal Power and Legitimacy

Jurisdynamics is pleased to note two books from its mailbox, one from a little while back; the other, brand new.

Matthew Flinders, Ultra Game NBA Men's Sleepwear Super Soft Flannel Pajama Loungew posts a classic apologia for politics. From the Oxford University Press blurb:

Citizens around the world have become distrustful of politicians, skeptical about democratic institutions, and disillusioned about the capacity of democratic politics to resolve pressing social concerns. Many feel as if something has gone seriously wrong with democracy. Those sentiments are especially high in the U.S. as the 2012 election draws closer. In 2008, President Barack Obama ran — and won — on a promise of hope and change for a better country. Four years later, that dream for hope and change seems to be waning by the minute. Instead, disillusionment grows with the Obama adminstration's achievements, or depending where you fall on the spectrum, its lack thereof.

Defending Politics meets this contemporary pessimism about the political process head on. In doing so, it aims to cultivate a shift from the negativity that appears to dominate public life towards a more buoyant and engaged "politics of optimism." Matthew Flinders makes an unfashionable but incredibly important argument of utmost simplicity: democratic politics delivers far more than most members of the public appear to acknowledge and understand. If more and more people are disappointed with what modern democratic politics delivers, is it possible that the fault lies with those who demand too much, fail to acknowledge the essence of democratic engagement, and ignore the complexities of governing in the twentieth century? Is it possible that the public in many advanced liberal democracies have become "democratically decadent," that they take what democratic politics delivers for granted? Would politics appear in a better light if we all spent less time emphasizing our individual rights and more time reflecting on our responsibilities to society and future generations?

Disillusionment with politics is a perennial, even perpetual theme. When even Glenn Beck laments its excesses, books such as Defending Politics will find a welcome home on our shelves.




Of more recent vintage is a volume edited by Clement Fatovic and Benjamin A. Kleinerman, Extra-Legal Power and Legitimacy: Perspectives on Prerogative. Again from Oxford University Press's blurb:

Constitutional systems aim to regulate government behavior through stable and predictable laws, but when their citizens' freedom, security, and stability are threatened by exigencies, often the government must take extraordinary action regardless of whether it has the legal authority to do so. Extra-Legal Power and Legitimacy: Perspectives on Prerogative … examine[s] the costs and benefits associated with different ways that governments have wielded extra-legal powers in times of emergency. They survey distinct models of emergency governments and draw diverse and conflicting approaches by joining influential thinkers into conversation with one another. Chapters by eminent scholars illustrate the earliest frameworks of prerogative, analyze American perspectives on executive discretion and extraordinary power, and explore the implications and importance of deliberating over the limitations and proportionality of prerogative power in contemporary liberal democracy.

Though more narrow in its focus than Defending Politics, this collection of essays highlights a core concern in the post-September 11 era. From covert intelligence to overt power, contemporary politics transcends traditional legal limits on the use of force. Jurisdynamics commends both of these volumes to its readers' attention.

 
Web Jurisdynamics